G possibilities for the analysis of galectin-4 with mice as an experimental organism. As an illustration, if a Lgals4 knockout mouse strain were to become made, either embryonic stem (ES) cells in the 129/Sv strain, carrying the duplicated Lgals4-Lgals6 locus, or from the C57BL/6J strain, carrying the Lgals4 unduplicated locus, could be used. With ES cells carrying the duplicated Lgals4-Lgals6 locus, galectin4-specific functions, such as within the lumen or the lamina propria, could be impacted even though galectin-6 could be in a position to fulfill many of the galectin-4/-6 redundant intracellular functions. On the contrary, with ES cells carrying the unduplicated Lgals4 locus, each of the functions fulfilled by galectin-4 may be blocked at as soon as. In this respect, the list of your key laboratory and wild-derived mouse strains carrying either the duplicatedGalectin-4/-6 Expression within the Digestive Tract or unduplicated locus will also be useful (Houzelstein et al. 2008). AcknowledgmentsWe want to thank L Bidermann, Stephan Pinson, and Christine Lamouroux in the animal facility for their wonderful assist inside the course of this project. We wish to thank Sarah Cormier and Aline Stedman for kindly sharing reagents. We thank Denise Busson and Marc Chodkiewicz for helpful discussions and comments on this article. Special because of Fran ise Praz for her generous enable in the starting of this project.Danielsen EM, Hansen GH. 2008. Lipid raft organization and function inside the small intestinal brush border. J Physiol Biochem. 64:37782. Danielsen EM, van Deurs B. 1997. Galectin-4 and compact intestinal brush border enzymes type clusters. Mol Biol Cell. 8:2241251. Davicino RC, Elicabe RJ, Di Genaro MS, Rabinovich GA. 2011. Coupling pathogen recognition to innate immunity by means of glycan-dependent mechanisms.Perylene Protocol Int Immunopharmacol.Y-27632 Biological Activity 11:1457463. Delacour D, Gouyer V, Zanetta JP, Drobecq H, Leteurtre E, Grard G, Moreau-Hannedouche O, Maes E, Pons A, Andre S, et al. 2005. Galectin-4 and sulfatides in apical membrane trafficking in enterocyte-like cells. J Cell Biol.PMID:23558135 169:49101. Duerr EM, Mizukami Y, Ng A, Xavier RJ, Kikuchi H, Deshpande V, Warshaw AL, Glickman J, Kulke MH, Chung DC. 2008. Defining molecular classifications and targets in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors by way of DNA microarray evaluation. Endocr Relat Cancer. 15:24356. Gitt MA, Colnot C, Poirier F, Nani KJ, Barondes SH, Leffler H. 1998. Galectin-4 and galectin-6 are two closely related lectins expressed in mouse gastrointestinal tract. J Biol Chem. 273:2954960. Gitt MA, Xia YR, Atchison RE, Lusis AJ, Barondes SH, Leffler H. 1998. Sequence, structure, and chromosomal mapping of the mouse Lgals6 gene, encoding galectin-6. J Biol Chem. 273:2961970. Haudek KC, Patterson RJ, Wang JL. 2010. SR proteins and galectins: What’s inside a name Glycobiology. 20:1199207. Heinzelmann-Schwarz VA, Gardiner-Garden M, Henshall SM, Scurry JP, Scolyer RA, Smith AN, Bali A, Vanden Bergh P, Baron-Hay S, Scott C, et al. 2006. A distinct molecular profile related with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 94:90413. Hippo Y, Yashiro M, Ishii M, Taniguchi H, Tsutsumi S, Hirakawa K, Kodama T, Aburatani H. 2001. Differential gene expression profiles of scirrhous gastric cancer cells with high metastatic possible to peritoneum or lymph nodes. Cancer Res. 61:889895. Hokama A, Mizoguchi E, Mizoguchi A. 2008. Roles of galectins in inflammatory bowel disease. Planet J Gastroenterol. 14:5133137. Hokama A, Mizoguchi E, Sugimoto K, Shimom.