L Evaluation The ESE of C. lutea was subjected to qualitative chemical screening employing standard process to reveal glycosides, polyphenols and saponins (Trease and Evans, 2001).Elemental analysis of your plant stem-bark The elemental element of ESE stem-bark of C. lutea was PPARγ Agonist Formulation elucidated employing the method of Dahlquist Knoll, (1978) as reported for the C. lutea leaf fractions (Nwidu et al., 2012d).Determination of ionic content material of plant stem-bark This determination was carried out by potentiometric titration as previously reported for leaf fractions (Nwidu et al., 2012d).Animals Swiss albino mice weighing amongst 25-30 g, and adult albino rats (100-150 g), of each sexes were obtained in the Faculty of Pharmacy Animal Property, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. All of the animals were housed in typical cages under laboratory situation in Division of Toxicology/Pharmacology in Niger Delta University to acclimatized the animals. All animals employed have absolutely free access to tap water below normal conditions of 12 h dark 12 h light and temperature (21? ). The animals have been fed with pellet feeds (Vita Feed, Ibadan). The experiment have been carried out amongst June to August 2012, in conformity with standard protocol for use of laboratory animals for experiments (Zimmerman, 1983). The protocols have been approved by the Niger Delta University, Faculty of Pharmacy Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee which follows the suggestions of Committee for the purpose of manage and supervision of experimental animals (CPSCEA; NDUFPAEC No. 2012/004).Drugs and chemical substances Castor oil (Finest cold drawn industrial castor oil), Morphine (Morph) (Evans Healthcare Ltd., Liverpool), solvents from Reidel-de Haen (Germany) of analytical grade have been utilized and although the pure drugs utilised are: Yohimbine Sigma, Aldrich (St. Louis, USA), Diphenoxylate (diph) and Isosorbide dinitrate, Isordil?(Actavis) (IDN). The ESE of C. lutea was dissolved in water and applied within the experiment.Acute toxicity test (LD50) The LD50 from the ESE of C. lutea was estimated by procedure described by Lorke 1983, with modification. Albino mice (25-30 g), of either sexes have been utilized. This strategy involved an initial lethal dose locating procedure, in which the animals have been divided into seven groups of three (3), animals per group. Doses of 10, 100, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg /kg have been administered intraperitoneally (i.p), for each and every group of 3 mice. The treated animals had been monitored for 24hrs, for mortality and basic behavioral characteristic indicative of animal toxicity. The LD50 was then estimated by taking the square root with the least dose that killed each of the animals, and the highest dose that do not kill any animal/s or the geometric meanNwidu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(two):257-dx.doi.org/10.4314/STAT3 Activator Formulation ajtcam.v11i2.5 with the lowest dose causing death as well as the highest dose causing no death. That’s, LD50 is equal to (highest dose causing no death mutiply by lowest dose causing death)1/Castor oil-induced diarrhea Adult albino rats (100-150g), fasted for 24hrs, but with no cost access to water have been employed. Water was withdrawn two hrs to bioassay. The rats were weighed and randomly allocated to seven groups of six rats every. Group I received 10 ml/kg of distilled water orally (p.o), group II-IV received 43.three, 86.6 and 173.two mg/kg of ESE p.o. Group V received five mg/kg of morphine i.p, group VI and VII received 0.5 mg/kg of diphenoxylate (Diph), and 1 mg/kg of yohimbine intra-peritoneally respectively 1.