nds using a superior antioxidant capacity, which is directly connected towards the phytochemical content material. A. hierochuntica (especially aqueous extract) protects rats against CCl4 -induced oxidative tension and acute kidney injury, as evidenced by a significant drop in MDA levels and enhanced GSH and SOD activity, also as the cessation of biochemical and histological alterations inside the kidneys. The protective efficacy may arise from the antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of the phenolic compounds present inside the A. hierochuntica extracts. These traits help to clarify the plant’s medicinal efficacy as a herbal medication. Additional research is necessary to completely describe the active principles within a. hierochuntica, and this study is meant to stimulate extra complete related research to give sufficient data and suggestions for defining its mechanisms and safe doses.Author Contributions: Conceptualization, T.I.A., Y.M.A. and H.B.; methodology, investigation, H.B. and H.A.A.-R.; information curation, T.I.A. and Y.M.A.; writing–original draft preparation, overview,Nutrients 2021, 13,13 ofand editing; H.B. and H.A.A.-R. All authors have study and agreed for the published version of your manuscript. Funding: The researchers would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Analysis, Qassim University, for funding the publication of this project. Institutional Overview Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Information Availability Statement: The information presented within this study are obtainable on request in the corresponding author. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.AbbreviationsABTS: 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); AOA: antioxidant activity; BHA: butylated hydroxyanisole; BHA: butylated hydroxyanisole; DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine; dw: dry weight; GA: gallic acid; GAE: gallic acid equivalent; GSH: reduced-glutathione; HPLC-DAD: high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection; KAE: A. hierochuntica aqueous extract; KEE: A. hierochuntica ethanolic extract; MDA: malonaldehyde; QE: quercetin equivalent; RAA: relative antioxidant activity; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RSA: radical scavenging activity; Se: selenium; SE: normal error; SOD: superoxide dismutase; TC: total carotenoids; TC: total carotenoids; TF: total flavonoids; TE: trolox equivalents; TFL: total flavonols; TPC: total phenolic compounds.
Received: 25 October 2021 Accepted: 15 November 2021 Published: 17 NovemberPublisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This short article is definitely an open access write-up distributed under the terms and circumstances in the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, accounting for practically ten million deaths in 2020. Amongst the techniques that have been developed to treat cancer, chemotherapy is utilized mostly to treat metastatic cancer that cannot be IKK-β Molecular Weight eradicated with surgery or radiotherapy. While chemotherapy would be the most efficient technique to Bax drug eradicate cancer, it requires a number of challenges like evolution of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells, which contains altered drug activation resulting from metabolism and excretion, and increased repair of DNA damage caused by anti-cancer drugs. The important mechanism underlying MDR is