Es. The value of host age, specifically in atherosclerosis, suggests that vascular wall aging is really a critical element of illness. Equally crucial has to be determinants imposed by the tissue environment, as all vasculitides and atherosclerosis share the stringency in tissue tropism, which means that they just about exclusively occur in an anatomically defined part of the vascular tree. Immune cell aging fundamentally modifications the functionality of innate and adaptive immune cells. How the tissue aging approach impacts the propensity to attract and retain inflammatory cells inside the vessel wall is unexplored. Exploiting the phagocytic capability of macrophages to load them with distinct cargo will deliver new avenues for immunomodulatory therapy in restricted tissue web sites.Autoimmunity. Author manuscript; readily available in PMC 2015 October 15.Shirai et al.PageAcknowledgmentsThis perform was supported by the National Institutes of Well being (R01 AR042547, RO1 HL117913, R01 AI044142, RO1 AI108906 and P01 HL058000 to CMW and R01 AI108891 and R01 AG045779 to JJG). Research studies informing this work received critical support from the Govenar Discovery Fund.Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript Author Manuscript
Clin Exp Immunol 2001; 123:421Polarized secretion of CXC chemokines by human intestinal epithelial cells in response to Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin: NF-k B plays a significant role within the regulation of IL-8 expressionJ. M. KI M, Y. K . OH , Y . J. KI M H. B. OH Y. J . CH O Division of Microbiology Institute of Biomedical Science, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Division of Microbiology, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Kyunggi-do, epartment of Science, Joongbu University, Choongnam and aboratory of Bacterial Toxins, Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Health, Seoul, Korea (Accepted for publication 2 November 2000)SUMMARY Enterotoxigenic B. fragilis, which produces a ,20 kD heat-labile toxin (BFT), has been associated with diarrhoeal illnesses and mucosal inflammation. To identify if epithelial cells can contribute to BFTinduced inflammation, we assessed the expression of CXC chemokines by BFT-stimulated human intestinal epithelial cells. BFT stimulation improved expression in the neutrophil chemoattractant and activators ENA-78, GRO-a , and IL-8. Up-regulated chemokine mRNA expression was paralleled by increased protein levels. Activation of the IL-8 and NF-k B transcriptional reporters was inhibited in cells cotransfected with all the Ik B kinase b and IkBa superrepressor plasmids. CD319/SLAMF7 Proteins Biological Activity Whereas lactate dehydrogenase, which was used to monitor cell lysis, was released predominantly from the apical surface, CXC chemokines had been predominantly secreted in the basolateral surface of BFT-treated epithelial cells. The basolateral secretion of CXC chemokines from BFT-stimulated colon epithelial cells suggests that these chemokines can contribute to the inflammatory cell infiltrate in the underlying intestinal mucosa. Keywords Bacteroides fragilis CXC chemokines epithelial cells NF-k BINTRODUCTION Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), which produces a ,20-kD heat-labile metalloprotease toxin (B. fragilis enterotoxin, or BFT), has been linked with noninvasive diarrhoeal disease in animals and young youngsters [1,2]. Moreover, B. fragilis GITRL Proteins web isolated from the bloodstream and also other extraintestinal websites (e.g. intra-abdominal abscesses) may perhaps also produce BFT [3,4], but correlations of BFT with severity or.