Ons comprised 30 cycles of amplification with denaturation at 94uC for 30 sec, annealing at 60uC for 30 sec, and elongation at 72uC for 30 sec. For negative controls, no mRNA was included. To confirm identity, the PCR products were sequenced as described [21]. For immunostaining, human endometrial samples at secretory phase were fixed with 10 neutral buffered formalin overnight at 23uC. Tissues were embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5-mm intervals. After deparaffinization and dehydration, antigen retrieval was performed by autoclave heating at 121uC in 10 mM citrate buffer for 10 min. Endogenous peroxidase activities were quenched with 0.3 hydrogen peroxidase. After blocking with 10 BSA-Tris-buffered saline (TBS) for 30 min, slides were incubated with specific antibodies overnight at 4uC. After three washes, slides were incubated with biotinylated secondary antibodies (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) for 30 min at 23uC. After three washes, bound antibodies were visualized using a Histostain SP kit (Invitrogen). For negative controls, the primary antibody was replaced by nonimmune IgG.Materials and Methods Source of Donated Embryos, Oocytes, and EndometriumWe have used three sources of human oocytes/embryos to evaluate the effects of autocrine/paracrine factors on early embryonic development in vitro, including abnormally fertilized zygotes, normally fertilized day 3 and 5 embryos, and reconstructed embryos after SCNT. We also obtained human endometrium for expression analyses. Informed signed consent from patients and approval from the Human Subject Committees of Stanford University School of Medicine, The Third Hospital, Peking University, and the Akita University Graduate School of Medicine were obtained. A total of 88 abnormally fertilized tri-pronuclear zygotes from 56 patients (32.162.6 years of age) undergoing IVF-ET at the Third Hospital, Peking University were obtained. These abnormal zygotes were allowed to develop to the cleavage stage (6?0-cellstage) before fixation for immunofluorescence staining of ligandreceptor pairs or directly used for in vitro cultures with growth factors. For normally fertilized human early embryos, a total of 153 and 81 cryo-preserved surplus human day 3 and 5 embryos donated by 25 (35.464.6 years of age) and 55 patients (38.965.2 years) to the RENEW Biobank at Stanford University School of Medicine and Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, respectively, were thawed for in vitro cultures. In addition, a total of 63 failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes donated for SCNT from patients at the IVF program of Stanford University were vitrified by using hemi-straw as a carrier and stored in 1317923 liquid nitrogen for SCNT experiments. All abnormal and surplus normal embryos were obtained from patients following informed consent and institutional approval.In vitro Embryo CulturesTri-pronuclear zygotes were cultured individually in 30 ml microdrops containing the Global-Medium (G-M, LifeGlobal, Guilford, CT) with 5 human serum albumin in the presence or absence of EGF, IGF-I, GM-CSF, BDNF, and CSF-1 (PeproTech, Rocky Hill, NJ), all at 10 ng/ml. The culture medium was renewed every 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated at 96, 120, and 144 h after culture. Normally fertilized embryos frozen on day 3 of culture by slow cooling were thawed by using a 2-step thawing protocol [15]. Poor-quality embryos (un-cleaved, retarded growth, and severely fragmented) were discarded and good-quality embryos were selected acc.